Discrimination:
Practice or action, whether intentional or not, and based upon protected grounds, that imposes burdens, obligations or disadvantages on an individual or group that are not imposed on others, or that withholds or limits access to opportunities, benefits and advantages available to other members of the University community; unequal and differential treatment of others based on prejudiced thoughts or attitudes, usually resulting in negative or hostile actions towards minority groups in areas of education, employment, accommodation, health care, and access to goods and services.

Gender Identity
Gender identity is the deeply felt knowledge of an individual that they are male or female; in transgendered persons, the gender identity and the anatomic sex may not be in alignment. Sexual orientation is not an indicator of gender identity. It is the expression of gender identity that results in discrimination because that expression is perceived as conflicting with the expectations placed upon the individual solely because of the form of his or her body, particularly its sexual characteristics.

Harassment:
Engagement in comment or conduct (including innuendo), based on a human rights protected ground, that is known or ought reasonably to be known to be abusive, demeaning, threatening, vexatious or intimidating or involves the misuse of authority or power that exceeds the bounds of freedom of expression or academic freedom; forms of harassment include name-calling, insults, threats, disparaging written communication, and physical abuse.

Heterosexism
Heterosexism is the negative valuing and discriminatory treatment of individuals and groups on the basis of their actual or perceived sexual orientation as lesbians, gay men or bisexuals.

Homophobia
Homophobia refers to the expression of fear, hatred or dislike of gay men. This fear or hatred is expressed as prejudice, discrimination and violence (including gay bashing)
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Human Rights:
The universal, equal, and inalienable entitlement that all people should enjoy as members of the human family; these are rights fundamental to freedom, justice, and peace and cannot be withdrawn.

Inclusivity:
State of belonging and interdependence that arises when every individual is accepted as an equal and valued member of the community; includes the removal of barriers to allow for full participation.

Mainstream:
Dominant culture in the political, social, educational, and economic institutions of a community.

Marginalization:
Devaluing and unequal treatment of a group which has the effect of reduced access to political, social, educational, and economic institutions; pushing a group to the periphery of the dominant society.

Minority Group:
Collective of individuals that has a small in population size; has restricted access to political, social, educational, and economic institutions; or is disempowered through discrimination.

Prejudice:
Attitude or judgement about an individual or group based on stereotypes and inadequate knowledge; irrationally and falsely attributing the same characteristics to every member of a group; most often a negative, unfavourable, or inferior opinion about a person of colour.
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Protected Grounds:
Basis on which the Ontario Human Rights Code exists to provide accommodation and protect everyone in Ontario from discrimination and harassment. The specific protected grounds include: race, colour, place of origin, ethnic origin, ancestry, citizenship, creed, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status, family status, same-sex partnership status, pardoned conviction, and disability within the meaning of the Ontario Human Rights Code. Carleton University has expanded the protected grounds to include gender identity and political affiliation or belief.

Sexual Orientation
Sexual orientation does not refer to sexual practices. It is an important part of an individual’s psychological and sexual identity. It refers to a shared social and cultural identity as gay, lesbian, bisexual or heterosexual (of which sexual expression is only a part). Sexual orientation is similar to religion or ethnicity in organizing people’s self-definition and their social and emotional lives.

Stereotypes:
False, overly simplistic, or unfounded assumptions about a group of people that results in disregard for individual differences amongst group members; usually, negative preconception that characterizes each member of that group as being one and the same.