Provided herein are compositions of coal fines or other carbonaceous material coated with a polymer, the polymer being a product of hydrothermal polymerization of a biomass. Methods for the production thereof, as well as apparatus for the production thereof, are also provided. Methods for reducing ash in coal fines and other carbonaceous materials are also provided. Such methods may include heating under pressure a catalyst solution containing coal fines and/or carbonaceous material, and a biomass containing saccharides, to form a hydrothermal polymer-coal composite which may be made into hard pellets. In some examples, the hydrothermal polymer may be made of green carbon from the carbon cycle, rather than fossil carbon.

US Provisional Application number: US62/935,999 (filed Nov. 15, 2019)

Inventor(s): McRae, Glenn A; Mackintosh, Alexis F; Basu, Onita D.

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