Evidence of learning can take many forms – from essays and exam questions, to portfolios and presentations. With so many choices, deciding on which evidence to use in the assessment of individual learning outcomes can be a daunting task.

Below is a list of common learning outcomes and the types of evidence that are well-suited to their assessment.

Thinking critically and making judgments

(Developing arguments, reflecting, evaluating, assessing, judging)

  • cuPortfolio
  • Essay
  • Report
  • Journal
  • Letter of advice to … (about policy, public health matters … )
  • Present a case for an interest group
  • Prepare a committee briefing paper for a specific meeting
  • Book review (or article) for a particular journal
  • Write a newspaper article for a foreign newspaper
  • Comment on an article’s theoretical perspective

Solving problems and developing plans

(Identifying problems, posing problems, defining problems, analysing data, reviewing, designing experiments, planning, applying information)

  • Problem scenario
  • Group work
  • Work-based problem
  • Prepare a committee of enquiry report
  • Draft a research bid to a realistic brief
  • Analyse a case
  • Conference paper (or notes for a conference paper plus annotated bibliography)

Performing procedures and demonstrating techniques

(Computation, taking readings, using equipment, following laboratory procedures, following protocols, carrying out instructions)

  • Demonstration
  • Role play
  • Make a video (write script and produce/make a video)
  • Produce a poster
  • Lab report
  • Prepare an illustrated manual on using the equipment for a particular audience
  • Observation of real or simulated professional practice

Managing and developing oneself

(Working cooperatively, working independently, learning independently, being self-directed, managing time, managing tasks, organising)

  • Journal
  • Portfolio
  • Learning contract
  • Group work

Accessing and managing information

(Researching, investigating, interpreting, organising information, reviewing and paraphrasing information, collecting data, searching and managing information sources, observing and interpreting)

  • Annotated bibliography
  • Project
  • Dissertation
  • Applied task
  • Applied problem

Demonstrating knowledge and understanding

(Recalling, describing, reporting, recounting, recognising, identifying, relating and interrelating)

  • Written examination
  • Oral examination
  • Essay
  • Report
  • Comment on the accuracy of a set of records
  • Devise an encyclopaedia entry
  • Produce an A–Z of…
  • Write an answer to a client’s question
  • Short-answer questions: true/false/ multiple-choice questions (paper-based or computer-aided assessment)

Designing, creating, performing

(Imagining, visualising, designing, producing, creating, innovating, performing)

  • Portfolio
  • Performance
  • Presentation
  • Projects


(One and two-way communication; communication within a group, verbal, written and non-verbal communication. Arguing, describing, advocating, interviewing, negotiating, presenting; using specific written forms.)

  • Written presentation (essay, report, reflective paper etc.)
  • Oral presentation
  • Group work
  • Discussion/debate/role play
  • Participate in a ‘Court of Inquiry’
  • Presentation to camera
  • Observation of real or simulated professional practice