STAGE 4 And ongoing…

Exploring the affordances of online learning environments: 3DVLEs and ePortfolios in second language learning and teaching (Doctoral dissertation). Hartwick, P. L. (2018). Retrieved from

Creating flexible spaces to promote language interaction and foster 21st century skills in 3DVLEs. Hartwick P. L. – Sarma N., Nowlan N. October 2018 – 5th WorldCALL, Concepción, Chili

Supporting the 21st Century Language Learner Online: How ePortfolios and 3DVLEs May Facilitate Achievement of Communication, Critical Thinking and Collaboration. Hartwick P, May 2018 – CALICO (Computer-Assisted Language Instruction Consortium), Urbana-Champaign, Illinois.

Factors affecting learner collaboration in 3D virtual worlds. Presented at International TESOL Webinar, (2018). November 19, 2018.

Task-based language learning and learner autonomy in 3D virtual worlds. In Qian, Y. (Ed.), Integrating Multi-User Virtual Environments in Modern Classrooms, Kozlova, I. (2018). (pp. 50–73). Hershey, PA: IGI Global

Skill assessment in virtual learning environments. Paper accepted for presentation at CIVEMSA 2018 (2018 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Virtual Environments for Measurements Systems and Applications, Ottawa, Canada). Nowlan, N., Hartwick, P., Arya, A. (2018).

Investigating research approaches: Classroom-based interaction studies in physical and virtual contexts. Hartwick, P. (2018). ReCALL: The Journal of EUROCALL, 30(2), 161. doi:10.1017/S0958344017000386

Integrating virtual spaces: Connecting affordances of 3D Virtual learning environments to design for twenty first century learning. Hartwick, P., & Savaskan Nowlan, N. (2018) In, Y. Qian (Ed.) Integrating multi-user virtual environments in modern classrooms (111-136). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

3D Virtual Learning Environments (3DVLEs), ePortfolios, and Achievement Outcomes. May 2017 – CALICO (Computer-Assisted Language Instruction Consortium), Flagstaff, Arizona. Learning Affordances of Space.

Affordances of 3D Virtual Learning Environments as Unique teaching and Learning Spaces. March 2016 – CNIE (Canadian Network for Innovation in Education) Virtual Conference.


How does activity design impact the quality and focus of interactions in a 3-d virtual learning environment? November 2015 – 8th SLanguages Annual Symposium – EduNation.

• ESL teacher training in 3D virtual worlds. Language Learning & Technology, Kozlova, I.,& Priven, D. (2015). 19(1), 83–101. Available at

Learning as an AVATAR: 3D virtual spaces used for ESL teacher-intern and EFL student interactions. May 2015 – CALICO Computer-Assisted Language Instruction Consortium, Denver, Colorado

What’s going on?” Learning academic English synchronously in 3D virtual environment.. Hartwick Peggy. March 2015 – Language in Focus (LIF) Cappadocia, Turkey.

• FantasTEch at,February 2015,

Learning English as a Second Language in a Blended Online and 3D environment.Hartwick Peggy. June 2014 – STLHE Society of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Kingston, Ontario.

Learning as an AVATAR: 3D Virtual Spaces Used for ESL Teacher-Intern and EFL student interactions.Hartwick Peggy. May 2014 – CALICO Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium, Athens, Ohio

Developing a clinical decision-making 3D Simulation. Gurbutt, R., Gurbutt, D., Hartwick, P., & Nowlan, N. (April, 2013). INTED2013 proceedings (7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain), pp. 4146 – 4155.

Collaborating through space and time in educational virtual environments: 3 case studies. Journal of Interactive Technology and Pedagogy, 2. Arya, A., Hartwick, P., Graham, S. & Nowlan, N. (2012).

Learning as an avatar: Designing immersive learning spaces and facilitating 3D learning experiences. Hartwick, P., & Nowlan, N. (2012, March). Paper presented at INTED2012 (6th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain).


Learning as an avatar: Taking Carleton Virtual and the NEW 3D Immersive Language Centre for a spin!. Hartwick Peggy

Learning as an Avatar: Designing immersive learning spaces and facilitation 3D learning experiences. Hartwick Peggy. April 2012 – INTED International technology, education and development conference, Valencia, Spain
Multiuser virtual environments and serious games for team building. A Bozanta, B Kutlu, N Nowlan, S Shirmohammadi – Procedia Computer Science, 2012

The effect of perceived ease of use on virtual team performance. NS Nowlan, A Arya, E Riesen, M Morley – Ubiquitous Learning, 2012

Avatars: Active language learners.Hartwick Peggy. April 2012 – 6th Annual Languages and Communication Symposium, Carleton University.


A Framework for an Immersive Learning Environment with Telemetries and Simulation. NS Nowlan, E Riesen, M Morley, A Arya, N Sauriol – Ubiquitous Learning: An International Journal, 2011

Virtual Environment as a Learning Space: Two Case Studies, presented by N. Nowlan at IETC-2011, Istanbul, Turkey. May 2011 Ali Arya, Shawn Graham, & Nuket Nowlan

Modeling the effect of perceived ease of use on virtual team performance. NS Nowlan – 2011

A Framework for an Immersive Learning Environment with Telemetries and Simulation. NS Nowlan, E Riesen, M Morley, A Arya, N Sauriol – Ubiquitous Learning: An International Journal, 2011

Data-driven framework for an online 3D immersive environment for educational applications. A Arya, N Nowlan, N Sauriol – Proceedings of the International Conference on …, 2010