Status: Ratified 10 November 2017

Estonia has a unicameral system, requiring the Riigikogu to ratify CETA. The Riigikogu approved CETA in September 2017, with formal notification in November 2017. Ratification was led by a government coalition under Prime Minister Jüri Ratas and supported by the Centre Party and its partners (i.e., the Social Democratic Party and the Isamaa Party).

Public debate

Estonia was quick to ratify CETA and the ratification process was characterized by limited contestation, with only one vote against. Proponents of ratification argued that the agreement would increase Western unity, access to the Canadian market, and produce positive motivation for an EU-US agreement. CSO proponents included the Estonian Chamber of Agriculture and Commerce. Opponents included environmentalists such as the Estonian Society for Nature Conservation, arguing that CETA would harm the environment.

Trade data

Estonia had a trade surplus in goods trade with Canada of €90 million in 2021 (Eurostat). Moreover, imports from Canada were €47 million, 0.8% of Estonia’s imports from outside the EU . Exports were €137 million, 2.3% of Estonia’s extra-EU exports (Eurostat). Canada-Estonia bilateral goods trade (imports + exports) decreased by €22 million, or 14.3%, between 2016-2019 (Statistics Canada).


Corporate Europe Observatory. (November 2016). European and Canadian civil society groups call for rejection of CETA. Link
Eschbach, A. The Ratification Process in EU Member States – A presentation with particular consideration of the TTIP and CETA free trade agreements. Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law. Link
Vahtla, Aili. (May 2017). “Riigikogu begins handling CETA ratification bill”. ERR News. Link.
Vahtla Aili. (September 2017). “Riigikogu ratifies EU-Canadian free trade agreement”. ERR News. Link.
Vahtla, Aili. (December 2016). “Estonian farmers do not expect Canada to become new key export market”. ERR News. Link.

Click here to return to CETA Tracker: Main Page

Click here for the Centre for European Studies, EU Learning.