Status: Ratified 2 December 2020

Romania has a bicameral system (Chamber of Deputies and Senate), requiring both chambers to ratify CETA. Ratification in Romania started relatively quickly with the Chamber of Deputies ratifying in December 2017, however, the Senate did not ratify CETA until October 2020, with formal notification of ratification in December 2020. Ratification occurred across two different governments, led by the Social Democratic Party (until 2019) and the National Liberal Party (after 2019). Both governments supported CETA’s ratification.

Public debate

Contestation was limited in Romania. Initially, it focused on Canada’s visa requirements for Romanian citizens; as a result the Romanian government opposed CETA. Canada eventually lifted the visa restrictions in early 2017. CSOs opposed to CETA’s ratification included trade unions, environmental groups and consumer advocacy associations, such as ActiveWatch, the Federation of Independent Trade Unions in Education and Greentourism Ecologic Association.

Trade data

Romania had a trade surplus in goods trade with Canada of €169 million in 2021 (Eurostat). Moreover, imports from Canada were €91 million, 0.3% of Romania’s imports from outside the EU. Exports to Canada were €260 million, 1.3% of Romania’s extra-EU exports (Eurostat). Canada-Romania bilateral goods trade (imports + exports) decreased by €45 million, or 10.5%, between 2016 and 2019 (Statistics Canada).


Gotev, G. (April 2016). “Romania will veto the EU-Canada trade deal.” Euractiv. Link.
Eschbach, A. The Ratification Process in EU Member States – A presentation with particular consideration of the TTIP and CETA free trade agreements. Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law. Link
European Public Service Union. (June 2016). “Unions and Civil Society are Mobilizing: No to CETA – a bad deal for workers and people.” Link
McGregor, J. (July 2016). “Canada prepares to lift Romanian visa rules to smooth way for EU trade deal”. CBC News. Link.

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