The following is an excerpt from the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, ed. Joseph Gibaldi and Walter S. Achtert (New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1977), pp. 97–121.

40   Content, Placement, and Arrangement of the Bibliography 1

a.  Content. The bibliography of a research paper usually lists all the works referred to in the text and notes. It is called Bibliography or Works Cited (use the latter if it includes films, recordings, or other nonprint sources). A bibliography that contains descriptive or evaluative comments on bibliographical entries is [titled] Annotated Bibliography or Annotated List of Works Cited. The title Works Consulted indicates the inclusion of works not cited in the text and notes. Avoid padding: do not list works you have not used (unless you are compiling the its for its own value).

b.  Placement. The bibliography comes at the end of the research paper …. The bibliography of a term paper is double-spaced (…). If an entry runs to more than one line, indent the second and subsequent lines …; continue the list on as many pages as necessary. … Number items in the bibliography only if you are using parenthetical documentation and the number system described in §39. In that case, place an Arabic numeral, followed by a period and a single space, before each entry.

c.  Arrangement. The bibliographical entries of a short paper are usually arranged in alphabetical order by the author’s last name or, if anonymous, by title—determined by the first word other than a definite or indefinite article (A Guide to Dining Out is alphabetized under “G”). Occasionally, as in historical studies, the writer may with to list items of the bibliography in chronological order, according to publication date; but this practice is rare.

If the bibliography is sizable, as in a dissertation, book, or long research paper, the writer may divide the bibliography into sections, with each section alphabetically arranged within itself. The bibliography may be divided simply into Primary Sources and Secondary Sources (…). In a paper dealing with several Renaissance poets, for instance, the works of the poets themselves would be listed under Primary Sources; the works of criticism, historical background, and similar material would be listed under Secondary Sources. Bibliographies are sometimes arranged according to research media: books, articles, recordings. Another method is to divide by subject matter. The list of works consulted for a study of several French statesmen, for example, might contain a separate section for each figure involved; the bibliography of a paper of Watergate could have such divisions as “Historical Background,” “Legal Precedents,” “Moral and Philosophical Issues,” and “Political Consequences.” A bibliographical arrangement could also be based on chronology or geography. The sections of a bibliography on capital punishment in the Western world could relate to periods of time: “Classical Greece and Rome,” “The Middle Ages and Renaissance,” and so forth; those on a study of famine in modern times, to places: “Asia,” “Africa,” and the like.

41   Differences in Form Between Note and Bibliographical Citations

a.  In general, the same information is contained in both the note and bibliographical citation. There are exceptions to this rule, however, as well as several differences in form.

b.  Name(s) of author(s) and title. In the bibliography, the author’s name is reversed for alphabetizing. If there is more than one author, only the first name is reversed, followed by a comma: Wellek, René, and Austin Warren. The title in the bibliographical citation should be complete, including any subtitle; in the note, as stated above (§32b), it need not be complete. The treatment of titles ([italicized] or placed in quotation marks) is the same as in notes (see §13).

c.  Publication information. As in a note, the place of publication and the publisher are separated by a colon, and the publisher and date by a comma; but this information is not enclosed in parentheses in the bibliography. In citations of periodicals, yearbooks, and reference books like the DAB and DNB, the year (sometimes preceded by the month or season) appears in parentheses following the volume number, edition, or title itself. The name of the degree-granting institution in the bibliographical citation of an article in DA or DAI also appears in parentheses.

Canadian Review of Comparative Literature, 2 (1975), 201–27.

Who’s Who in America. 37th ed. (1972–73).

DNB (1909).

DAI, 32 (1972), 3995A (Univ. of Southern California).

d.  Volume numbers and page numbers. If all the volumes of a multivolume work have been used, indicate that fact before the publication information: 3 vols. New York: New York Univ. Press, 1968. If all the volumes have not been used, indicate the ones that have been used after the publication information: New York: New York Univ. Press, 1968. Vols. II and III. However, if the volumes were published in different years, the volume number(s) should precede the publication information: Vol. I. New York: New York Univ. Press, 1968. (For sample bibliographical entries for all three cases, see §42f.) Page numbers are seldom cited in the bibliography for books, but they are indicated for shorter pieces (articles, poems, short stories, essays) that appear within longer works (periodicals, anthologies, collections of essays). In such cases, give the page numbers of the entire piece (pp. 1–15), not just of the material directly used (p. 4). Page numbers follow a comma and are presented as part of the information that directly precedes them: New York: Macmillan, 1974, pp. 1–10.

e.  Spacing and indentation. … [T]he first line of the bibliographical entry extends to the left margin and its second and subsequent lines are indented [0.35 inches].

f.  Punctuation. In general, the bibliographical citation, unlike the note (see §27), is not to be read as if it were a sentence. Hence, complete blocks of information (including titles of articles in journals and periodicals) are followed by periods, not commas.

g.  Two or more works by the same author(s) are indicated by giving the name(s) of the author(s) in the first entry only. Thereafter, in place of the name(s), type [four em dashes], follow with a period, skip [one space], and give the next title. The [four em dashes] stand for the full name in the preceding entry; if there is an additional author or authors, the name(s) of the additional author(s) may follow the [em dashes]. In citing two or more works by the same author(s) in the bibliography, the writer may arrange the titles either alphabetically or chronologically by date of publication.

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1957.

————. The Critical Path: An Essay on the Social Context of Literary Criticism. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1971.

————, et al. Morality of Scholarship. Ed. Max Black. Studies in Humanities. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press, 1967.

42   Sample Bibliographical Entries for Published Books

a.  In general, bibliographical entries for published books contain the same information normally contained in notes, but in the form and with the exceptions described in §41. For note citations that parallel the sample bibliographical entries in each of these lettered subsections, see the corresponding lettered subsection of §32.

b.  A book with a single author. (Cf. §32b.)

Booth, Wayne C. The Rhetoric of Fiction. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1961.

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1957.

Gelfand, Michael. African Background: The Traditional Culture of the Shona-Speaking People. Cape Town: Juta, 1965.

Meyer, Heinrich. Goethe: Das Leben im Werk. Stuttgart: Günter, 1967.

Sarin, Dharma P. The Influence of Political Movements on Hindi Literature, 1906–1947. Chandigarh: Punjab Univ. Publications Bureau, 1968.

Note that the works cited in the sample notes in §32b have been alphabetized here as they normally would be for the bibliography. All subsequent examples of bibliographical entries follow the same practice.

c.  A book with two or more authors. (Cf. §32c.)

Burn, Barbara B., et al. Higher Education in Nine Countries: A Comparative Study of Colleges and Universities Abroad. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971.

Cargill, Oscar, William Charvat, and Donald D. Walsh. The Publication of Academic Writing. New York: MLA, 1966.

Wellek, René, and Austin Warren. Theory of Literature. 3rd ed. New York: Harcourt, 1962.

d.  A book with a corporate author. (Cf. §32d.)

Higher Education for American Democracy. By the President’s Commission on Higher Education. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1947.


President’s Commission on Higher Education. Higher Education for American Democracy. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1947.

Report of the Commission on the Humanities. New York: American Council of Learned Societies, 1964.

e.  An anonymous book. (Cf. §32e.)

Literary Market Place: The Directory of American Book Publishing. 1976–77 ed. New York: Bowker, 1976.

The World of Learning, 1975–76. 26th ed. 2 vols. London: Europa, 1975.

f.  A work in several volumes or parts. (Cf. §32f.)

Churchill, Winston S. The Age of Revolution. Vol. III of A History of the English-Speaking Peoples. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1957.

Daiches, David. A Critical History of English Literature. 2nd ed. New York: Ronald, 1970, Vol. II.

Parker, William R. Milton: A Biography. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968.

Wellek, René. A History of Modern Criticism, 1750–1950. Vol. III. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1965.

g.  A work in a collection of pieces all by the same author. (Cf. §32g.)

Adam, Antoine. “Descartes.” In L’Epoque d’Henri IV et de Louis XIII. Vol. I of Histoire de la littérature française au XVIIe siècle. Paris: Domat, 1948, pp. 319–29.

Malone, Kemp. “Etymologies for Hamlet.” In his Studies in Heroic Legend and in Current Speech. Ed. S. Einarsson and N. E. Eliason. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger, 1959, pp. 204–25.

h.  A work in a collection of pieces by different authors. (Cf. §32h.)

Hamilton, Marie Padgett. “The Meaning of the Middle English Pearl.” PMLA, 70 (1955), 805–24. Rpt. in Middle English Survey: Critical Essays. Ed. Edward Vasta. Notre Dame, Ind.: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1965, pp. 117–45.

Lewis, C. S. “The Anthropological Approach.” In English and Medieval Studies Presented to J. R. R. Tolkien on the Occasion of His Seventieth Birthday. Ed. Norman Davis and C. L. Wrenn. London: Allen and Unwin, 1962., pp. 219–23. Rpt. “View Points: C. S. Lewis.” In Twentieth Century Interpretations of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Ed. Denton Fox. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968, pp. 100–01.

O’Connor, Flannery. “Everything That Rises Must Converge.” In Mirrors: An Introduction to Literature. Ed. John R. Knott, Jr., and Christopher R. Reaske. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Canfield, 1975, pp. 58–67.

Unamuno y Jugo, Miguel de. Abel Sanchez. Trans. Anthony Kerrigan. In Eleven Modern Short Novels. Ed. Leo Hamalian and Edmond L. Volpe. 2nd ed. New York: Putnam, 1970, pp. 253–344.

Wright, Richard. “Bright and Morning Star.” In Short Stories: A Critical Anthology. Ed. Ensaf Thune and Ruth Prigozy. New York: Macmillan, 1973, pp. 368–94.

If several works in the same collection have been cited in notes, the collection may be cited as a whole in the bibliography.

Thune, Ensaf, and Ruth Prigozy, eds. Short Stories: A Critical Anthology. New York: Macmillan, 1973.

Vasta, Edward, ed. Middle English Survey: Critical Essays. Notre Dame, Ind.: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1965.

i.  Articles in reference works. (Cf. §32i.)

Chiappini, Luciano. “Este, House of.” Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 1974 ed.

French, John C. “Norris, Benjamin Franklin.” DAB (1934).

“Mandarin.” Encyclopedia Americana. 1976 ed.

“Mead, Margaret.” Who’s Who of American Women. 8th ed. (1974–75).

Monkhouse, William Cosmo. “Reynolds, Sir Joshua.” DNB (1896).

j.  A work in a series. (Cf. §32j.)

Fisher, John H. “The Progress of Research in Medieval English Literature in the United States of America.” English Studies Today. 4th ser. Ed. Ilva Cellini and Giorgio Melchiori. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1966, pp. 33–43.

Hoefert, Sigfrid. Das Drama des Naturalismus. Sammlung Metzler, 75. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1968.

Wallerstein, Ruth C. Richard Crashaw: A Study in Style and Poetic Development. Univ. of Wisconsin Studies in Lang. and Lit., No. 37. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1935.

k.  A modern reprint of an older edition. (Cf. §32k.)

Bray, René. La Formation de la doctrine classique en France. 1927; rpt. Paris: Nizet, 1966.

Lowes, John Livingston. The Road to Xanadu: A Study in the Ways of the Imagination. 2nd ed. 1930; rpt. New York: Vintage-Knopf, 1959.

Willey, Basil. The Eighteenth Century Background: Studies on the Idea of Nature in the Thought of the Period. London, 1940; rpt. Boston: Beacon, 1961.

l.  An edition. (Cf. §32l.)

Cook, Don L., gen. Ed. A Selected Edition of W. D. Howells. Vol. XVI: A Hazard of New Fortunes. Ed. David J. Nordloh et al. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1976.

Hinman, Charlton, ed. The First Folio of Shakespeare: The Norton Facsimile. New York: Norton, 1968.

Smith, Henry Nash, introd. The Prairie: A Tale. By James Fenimore Cooper. New York: Holt, 1950.


Cooper, James Fenimore. The Prairie: A Tale. Introd. Henry Nash Smith. New York: Holt, 1950.

m.  A translation. (Cf. §32m.)

Coulson, Jessie, trans. Crime and Punishment. By Feodor Dostoevsky. Ed. George Gibian. New York: Norton, 1964.


Dostoevsky, Feodor. Crime and Punishment. Trans. Jessie Coulson. Ed. George Gibian. New York: Norton, 1964.

Sastre, Alfonso. Sad Are the Eyes of William Tell. Trans. Leonard C. Pronko. In The New Wave Spanish Drama. Ed. George E. Wellwarth. New York: New York Univ. Press, 1970, pp. 265–321.

Schoolfield, George C., trans. The German Lyric of the Baroque in English Translation. Univ. of North Carolina Studies in Germanic Langs. and Lits., 29. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1961.

n.  An unpublished dissertation. (Cf. §32n.)

Gans, Eric L. “The Discovery of Illusion: Flaubert’s Early Works, 1835–1837.” Diss. Johns Hopkins 1967.

o.  A published dissertation. (Cf. §32o.)

Nykrog, Per. Les Fabliaux: Etude d’histoire littéraire et de stylistique médiévale. Diss. Aarhus 1956. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1957.

Wendriner, Karl Georg. Der Einfluss von Goethes Wilhelm Meister auf das Drama der Romantiker. Diss. Bonn 1907. Leipzig: privately printed, 1907.

p.  The published proceedings of a conference. (Cf. §32p.)

Humanistic Scholarship in America. Proc. of a Conference on the Princeton Studies in the Humanities. 5–6 Nov. 1965. Princeton: Princeton Univ., 1966.

q.  A pamphlet. (Cf. §32q.)

Modern Language Association of America. A Guide for Job Candidates and Department Chairmen in English and Foreign Languages. Rev. ed. New York: MLA, 1975.

r.  Government publications. (Cf. §32r.)

Cong. Rec. 7 Feb. 1973, pp. 3831–51.

Great Britain. Ministry of Defence. Author and Subject Catalogues of the Naval Library, Ministry of Defence. London: HMSO, 1967.

New York City. Knapp Commission. The Knapp Commission Report on Police Corruption. New York: Braziller, [1973?].

New York State. Committee on State Prisons. Investigation of the New York State Prisons. 1883; rpt. New York: Arno, 1974.

United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. Industrial Growth in Africa. New York: United Nations, 1963.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Productivity. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1958.

U.S. Cong. Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack. Hearings. 79th Cong., 1st and 2nd sess. 32 vols. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1946.

U.S. Cong. Senate. Special Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce. Report on Crime Investigation. 82nd Cong., 1st sess. S. Rept. 141. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1951.

Washburne, E. B. Memphis Riots and Massacres. U.S. 39th Cong., 2nd sess. H. Rept. 101. 1866; rpt. New York: Arno, 1969.


U.S. Cong. House. Memphis Riots and Massacres. By E. B. Washburne. 39th Cong., 2nd sess. H. Rept. 101. 1866; rpt. New York: Arno, 1969.

s.  Legal references. (Cf. §32s.)

Stevens v. National Broadcasting Co. 148 U.S.P.Q 755. Cal. Super. Ct. 1966.

15 U.S. Code. Sec. 78j(b) (1964).

U.S. Const. Art. I, sec. 1.

t.  A book without place of publication, publisher, date or publication, or pagination. (Cf. §32t.)

Photographic View Album of Cambridge. [England]: n.p., n.d.

u.  A book with multiple publishers. (Cf. §32u.)

Starr, Wilmarth H., Mary P. Thompson, and Donald D. Walsh, eds. Modern Foreign Languages and the Academically Talented Student. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association; New York: MLA, 1960.

v.  A book without page numbers but with signatures. (Cf. §32v.)

Pikeryng, John. A Newe Enterlude of Vice Conteyninge the Historye of Horestes. London, 1567.

43   Sample Bibliographical Entries for Articles in Periodicals

a.  In general, Bibliographical entries for articles in periodicals should contain the information normally contained in notes but in the form and with the exceptions described in §41. For notes that parallel the sample bibliographical entries in each of these lettered subsections, see the corresponding lettered subsection of §34.

b.  An article in a journal with continuous pagination throughout the annual volume. (Cf. §34b.)

Ramsey, Jarold W. “The Wife Who Goes Out like a Man, Comes Back as a Hero: The Art of Two Oregon Indian Narratives.” PMLA, 92 (1977), 9–18.

c.  An article from a journal that pages each issue separately or that numbers only issues. (Cf. §34c.)

Frey, John R. “America and Her Literature Reviewed by Postwar Germany.” American-German Review, 20, No. 5 (1954), 4–6.

Marc’hadour, Germain. “Hugh Latimer and Thomas More.” Moreana, No. 18 (1968), pp. 29–49.

Stephens, Donald, and George Woodcock. “The Literary History of Canada: Editorial Views.” Canadian Literature. No. 24 (1965), pp. 10–22.

d.  An article from a journal with more than one series. (Cf. §34d.)

Levin, Yu D. “Tolstoy, Shakespeare, and Russian Writers of the 1860s.” Oxford Slavonic Papers, NS 1 (1968), 85–104.

e.  An article from a weekly magazine or weekly newspaper. (Cf. §34e.)

Cohen, Hennig. “Why Isn’t Melville for the Masses?” Saturday Review, 16 Aug. 1969, pp. 19–21.

“The Old Art Forms Will Wither Away.” National Observer, 22 Sept. 1969, p. 1, cols. 2–4; p. 22, cols. 1–3.

f.  An article from a monthly magazine. (Cf. §34f.)

Howe, Irving. “James Baldwin: At Ease in Apocalypse.” Harper’s. Sept. 1968, pp. 92–100.

g.  An article from a daily newspaper. (Cf. §34g.)

Brody, Jane E. “Multiple Cancers Termed on Increase.” New York Times. Late City Ed., 10 Oct. 1976, Sec. 1, p. 37, col. 1.

h.  An editorial. (Cf. §34h.)

“The Spirit of ’77.” Editorial. Washington Post, 21 Jan. 1977, Sec. A, p. 22, cols. 1–2.

i.  An anonymous article. (Cf. §34i.)

“A Return to Guido Gozzano: An Italian Poet Rediscovered.” Italy: Documents and Notes, 17, No. 1 (1968), 55–60.

j.  A letter to the editor. (Cf. §34j.)

Moore, Harry T. Letter. Sewanee Review, 71 (1963), 347–48.

k.  Reviews, signed and unsigned. (Cf. §34k.)

Rev. of Anthology of Danish Literature, ed. F. J. Billeskov Jansen and P. M. Mitchell. Times Literary Supplement, 7 July 1972, p. 785.

“The Cooling of an Admiration.” Rev. of Pound/Joyce: The Letters of Ezra Pound to James Joyce, ed. Forrest Read. Times Literary Supplement, 6 March 1969, pp. 239–40.

Maddocks, Melvin. “Sermonets and Stoicism.” Rev. of Not So Wild a Dream, by Eric Sevareid. Time, 30 Aug. 1976, p. 69.

Merivale, Patricia. Rev. of George Eliot and Flaubert: Pioneers of the Modern Novel, by Barbara Smalley. Comparative Literature Studies, 13 (1976), 76–77.

l.  An article whose title contains a quotation or a title within quotation marks. (Cf. §34l.)

Carrier, Warren. “Commonplace Costumes and Essential Gaudiness: Wallace Stevens’ ‘The Emperor of Ice-Cream.’” College Literature, 1 (1974), 230–35.

m.  An article from Dissertation Abstracts or Dissertation Abstracts International. (Cf. §34m.)

Gans, Eric L. “The Discovery of Illusion: Flaubert’s Early Works, 1835‑1837.” DA, 27 (1967), 3046A (Johns Hopkins).

44   Sample Bibliographical Entries for Other Sources

For notes that parallel the sample bibliographical entries in each of these lettered subsections, see the corresponding lettered subsection of §35.

a.  Manuscripts and typescripts. (Cf. §35a.)

Twain, Mark. Notebook 32, TS. Mark Twain Papers. Univ. of California, Berkeley.

b.  Lectures. (Cf. §35b.)

Doran, Madeleine. “The Style and the Story: Shakespeare’s Appropriate and Varying Artistry.” English Section I, MLA Convention, San Francisco. 27 Dec. 1975.

c.  Films. (Cf. §35c.)

Bertolucci, Bernardo, dir. Last Tango in Paris. With Marlon Brando and Maria Schneider. United Artists, 1972.

d.  Theatrical performances. (Cf. §35d.)

Balanchine, George, chor. Harlequinade. New York City Ballet. New York State Theater, New York. 8 July 1968.

Caldwell, Sarah, dir. and cond. La Traviata. With Beverly Sills. Opera Company of Boston. Orpheum Theatre, Boston. 4 Nov. 1972.

Gielgud, John, dir. Hamlet. By Shakespeare. With Richard Burton. Shubert Theatre, Boston. 4 March 1964.

Kander, John, and Fred Ebb. Chicago. Dir. Bob Fosse. With Gwen Verdon, Chita Rivera, and Jerry Orbach. Forty-Sixth Street Theatre. New York. 20 Oct. 1975.

Shaw, Robert, cond. Atlanta Symphony Orchestra Concert. Atlanta Arts Center, Atlanta. 14 May 1974.

e.  Musical compositions. (Cf. §35e.)

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 7 in A, op. 92.

f.  Works of art. (Cf. §35f.)

Houdon, Jean-Antoine. Statue of Voltaire. Comédie Française, Paris. Illus. 51 in Literature through Art: A New Approach to French Literature. By Helmut A. Hatzfeld. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1952.

Rembrandt van Rijn. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

g.  Radio or television programs. (Cf. §35g.)

The Black Cat. Dir. Hi Brown. CBS Mystery Theater. 4 Nov. 1973.

The First Americans. Narr. Hugh Downs. Writ. and prod. Craig Fisher. NBC News Special. 21 March 1968.

“The Joy Ride.” Writ. Alfred Shaughnessy. Upstairs, Downstairs. Created by Eileen Atkins and Jean Marsh. Dir. Bill Bain. Prod. John Hawkesworth. Masterpiece Theatre. Introd. Alistair Cooke. PBS, 6 Feb. 1977.

h.  Recordings. (Cf. §35h.)

Colette. Libretto. L’Enfant et les sortilèges. By Maurice Ravel. With Suzanne Danco and Hugues Cuenod. Cond. Ernest Ansermet, Orchestre de la Suisse Romande. Richmond-London, SR 33086, n.d.

Frost, Robert, Robert Frost Reads His Poetry. Caedmon, XC 783, 1952.

Holiday, Billie. Essential Billie Holiday. Verve, 68410, 1961.

Lewiston, David. Jacket Notes. The Balinese Gamelan: Music from the Morning of the World. Nonesuch Explorer Series, H-2015, n.d.

Mozart, Wolfgang A. Divertimento in D (K. 334) and Notturno (Serenade) in D (K. 286). Cond. Neville Mariner, Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Fields Orchestra. Argo, ZRG 705, 1973.

Murrow, Edward R. Year of Decision: 1943. Columbia, CPS-3872, 1957.

Verdi, Giuseppe. Rigoletto. With Joan Sutherland, Luciano Pavarotti, Sherrill Milnes, and Martti Talvela. Cond. Richard Bonynge, London Symphony Orchestra and Ambrosian Opera Chorus. London Records, OSA-12105, 1973.

Weaver, William. “The Making of Turandot.” In Libretto. Turandot. By Giacomo Puccini. With Birgit Nilsson and Franco Corelli. Cond. Francesco Molinari-Pradelli, Rome Opera House Orchestra and Chorus. Angel, CL-3671, 1966.

Wilgus, D. K. Southern Folk Tales. Recorded 23–25 March 1965. Univ. of California, Los Angeles Archives of Folklore, B.76.82 (7½ ips, 7″ reel).

i.  Personal letters. (Cf. §35i.)

Benton, Thomas Hart. Letter to Charles Fremont. 22 June 1847. John Charles Fremont Papers. Southwest Museum Library, Los Angeles, Calif.

Ray, Gordon N., ed. Letters and Private Papers of William Makepeace Thackeray. 4 vols. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1946.

Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. Letter to author. 17 May 1976.

j.  Personal and telephone interviews. (Cf. §35j.)

Poussaint, Alvin F. Telephone interview. 7 May 1975.

Vonnegut, Kurt. Personal interview. 27 July 1976.

k.  Documents from an information service. (Cf. §35k.)

Spolsky, Bernard. Navajo Language Maintenance: Six-Year-Olds in 1969. Navajo Reading Study Prog. Report No. 5. Albuquerque: Univ. of New Mexico, 1969. ERIC ED 043 004.

Streiff, Paul R. Some Criteria for Designing Evaluation of TESOL Programs. ERIC ED 040 385.

l.  Indirect sources. (Cf. §35l.)

Boswell, James. The Life of Johnson. Ed. George Birkbeck Hill and L. F. Powell. 6 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1934–50.

Weinberg, Bernard. A History of Literary Criticism in the Italian Renaissance. 2 vols. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1961.


  1  These instructions apply to the bibliography of a research paper, which is different from an elaborate and technical bibliographical description ….