This chapter provides a brief summary of various road conditions that are observed during the life of a road pavement, safety implications of these road conditions, and maintenance strategies and technologies implemented to improve these conditions for enhancing road safety. Various physical road surface distresses and roadway conditions are discussed. The fundamental reasons on the occurrence of these conditions are explained, and how they pose threats to road safety is also explained. A detailed discussion on the correlation between road conditions and road safety is covered. Various maintenance strategies that have evolved over the past decades are summarized.