Commentary (October 2008) By David Long, Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Carleton University

The European nations’s involvement in Afghanistan is shaped by their participation in the NATO-led ISAF (International Security Assistance Force) operation. Though 25 of 27 European Union nations are engaged in the mission, the reality is that only a few European states have significant numbers of troops in Afghanistan. This policy addresses the divergences in EU members on military integration within the NATO, as highlighted by their limited role in the ISAF.