In Press:

92. Giacomantonio, C., Litmanovitz, Y., Bennell, C. & Jones, D. (in press). Expressing uncertainty in criminology: Applying insights from scientific communication to evidence-based policing. Criminology and Criminal Justice. [PDF]

91. Jenkins, B., Semple, T., & Bennell, C. (in press). Why are tactical officers responding to ‘routine’ calls? Using police data to examine the presence of risk factors during seemingly low risk incidents. Police Practice and Research. [PDF]

90. Jenkins, B., Suss, J., Semple, T., & Bennell, C. (in press). Primed to use force? A systematic review examining the relationship between tactical experience and use of force. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.

89. Lair, Z., Jenkins, B., Semple, T., & Bennell, C. (in press). The importance of context: Re-examining the ‘deployments’ of SWAT teams in Canada. Policing and Society. [PDF]

88. Sheppard, J., Khanizadeh, A., Baldwin, S. & Bennell, C. (in press). A comparison of police use of force by male and female officers in Canada: Rates, modalities, effectiveness, and injuries. Criminal Justice and Behavior. [PDF]


87. Bennell, C., Simpson, R., Makeen-Braze, L., Ackert-Fraser, R., Lanzo, L., & Bennell, N. (2024). Public perceptions of police officers who wear pins or patches on their uniform. Police Practice and Research, 24, 735-743. [PDF]

86. Dreger-Smylie, C., Duxbury, L., & Bennell, C. (2024). Community policing during the pandemic. Police Practice and Research, 25, 230-243. [PDF]


85. Andersen, J., Di Nota, P., Nazanin, A., Anderson, G., Bennell, C., McGregor, C., Ricciardelli, R., Scott, S., Shipley, P., & Vincent, M. (2023). A biological approach to building resilience and wellness capacity among police exposed to post-traumatic stress injuries. Protocol for a randomized controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols, 12, e33492. [PDF]

84. Crough, Q. & Bennell, C. (2023). Dressing the part: The influence of police attire on outcomes in a simulated traffic violation case. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 25, 106-115. [PDF]

83. Ewanation, L., Bennell, C., Tonkin, M., & Santtila, P. (2023). Receiver operating characteristic curves in the crime linkage context: Benefits, limitations, and recommendations. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 37, 1277-1289. [PDF]

82. Khanizadeh, A-J., Blaskovits, B.,Bennell, C. & Huey, L. (2023). Receptivity to research in policing: Results from a survey of Canadian police professionals. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 25, 133-147. [PDF]

81. Longridge, R., Chapman, B., Bennell, C., & Keatley, D. (2023). Behavioural sequence analysis of body worn camera footage. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 38, 255-262. [PDF]


80. Baldwin, S., Bennell, C., Blaskovits, B., Brown, A., Jenkins, B., Lawrence, C., McGale, H., Semple, T., & Andersen, J. (2022). A reasonable officer: Examining the relationships among stress, training, and performance in a highly realistic lethal force scenario. Frontiers in Psychology. [PDF, supplemental material]

79. Baldwin, S., Blaskovits, B., Hall, C., Lawrence, C., & Bennell, C. (2022). Adverse outcomes in non-fatal use of force encounters involving excited delirium syndrome. Police Practice and Research, 23, 322-336. [PDF, supplemental material]

78. Bennell, C., Brown, A., Jenkins, B., Khanizadeh, A.-J., MacIsaac, A., & Semple, T. (2022). The need for a Canadian database of police use of force incidents. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 64, 6-29. [PDF]

77. Bennell, C., Jenkins, B., Blaskovits, B., Semple, T., Khanizadeh, A., Brown, A., & Jones, N. (2022). Knowledge, skills, and abilities for managing potentially volatile police-public interactions. A narrative review. Frontiers in Psychology. [PDF]

76. Blaskovits, B., Bennell, C., Baldwin, S., Ewanation, L., Brown, A., & Korva, N. (2022). The thin blue line between cop and soldier: Examining public perceptions of the militarized appearance of police. Police Practice and Research, 23, 212-235. [PDF, supplemental material]

75. Blaskovits, B., Jenkins, B., Brown, A., Baldwin, S., & Bennell, C. (2022). Misplacing memory: Examining the phenomenon of cognitive offloading during an officer-involved use-of-force scenario. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 37, 49-67. [PDF]

74. Bozeman, W. P., Vilke, G. M., Hall, C., Klinger, D. A., Ross, D. L., Bennell, C., Petit, N. P., Miller, D. L., Ford, K. K., Hiestand, B., and Stopyra, J. P. (2022). Safety of vascular neck restraint applied by law enforcement officers. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 92. [PDF]

73. Brook, G., Elliott, M., & Bennell, C. (2022). An evaluation of SimVoice mental health de-escalation training. Journal of Community Safety and Well-Being, 7, 148-155. [PDF]

72. Jenkins, B., Semple, T., Bennell, C., & Huey, L. (2022). Misunderstandings, mischaracterizations, and malicious accusations: A reply to Walby’s (2021) SWAT Everywhere? The Police Journal: Theory, Practice, and Principles, 95, 411-420. [PDF, supplemental material]

71. Korva, N., Bennell, C., Lalumiere, M., & Karimullah, M. (2022). What do you see? Understanding perceptions of police use of force videos as a function of the camera perspective. Behavioral Science & the Law, 40, 480-503. [PDF]


70. Bennell, C., Alpert, G., Andersen, J. P., Arpaia, J., Huhta, J. M., Kahn, K. B., … & White, M. D. (2021). Advancing police use of force research and practice: Urgent issues and prospects. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 26, 121-144. [PDF]

69. Bennell, C., Blaskovits, B., Jenkins, B., Semple, T., Khanizadeh, A.-J., Brown, A., & Jones, N. (2021). Promising practices for de-escalation and use-of-force training: A narrative review. Policing: An International Journal, 44, 377-404. [PDF]

68. Bennell, C., Mugford, R., Woodhams, J., Beauregard, E., & Blaskovits, B. (2021). Linking serial sex offences using standard, iterative, and multiple classification trees. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 36, 691-705. [PDF, supplemental material]

67. Brown, A., Baldwin, S., Blaskovits, B., & Bennell, C. (2021). Examining the impact of grip strength and officer gender on shooting performance. Applied Ergonomics, 97. [PDF]

66. Carrier, J., Bennell, C., Semple, T., & Jenkins, B. (2021). Online Canadian police recruitment videos: Do they focus on factors that potential employees consider when making career decisions? Police Practice and Research, 22, 1585-1602. [PDF]

65. Huey, L., Andersen, J., Bennell, C., Campbell, M. A., Koziarski, J., & Vaughan, A. D. (2021). Caught in the currents: Evaluating the evidence for common downstream police response interventions in calls involving persons with mental illness. FACETS, 6, 1409-1445. [PDF]

64. Jenkins, B., Semple, T., & Bennell, C. (2021). An evidence-based approach to critical incident response scenario development. Policing: An International Journal, 44, 437-454. [PDF]

63. Jenkins, B., Semple, T., Bennell, C., Carter, E., Baldwin, S., & Blaskovits, B. (2021). Examining the impact of uniform manipulations on perceptions of police officers among Canadian university students. Police Practice and Research, 22, 1694-1717. [PDF]

62. Jenkins, B., Semple, T., Bennell, C., & Huey, L. (2021). An exploration of the use of tactical officers in three Canadian police services. The Police Journal: Theory, Practice, and Principles, 94, 515-538. [PDF]

61. Jenkins, B., Semple, T., Bennell, C., & Huey, L. (2021). The role of context in understanding the use of tactical officers: A brief research note. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 23, 385-391. [PDF]

60. Semple, T., Bennell, C., Berger, C., Brewer, K., Brook, G., Brown-Baker, S., … & Walji, Q. (2021). Are students aware of, knowledgeable about, and willing to use campus safety services? Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 23, 190-212. [PDF]

59. Semple, T., Jenkins, B., & Bennell, C. (2021). Injuries and deaths proximate to oleoresin capsicum spray deployment: A literature review. The Police Journal: Theory, Practice, and Principles, 94, 184-205. [PDF]

58. Semple, T., Tomlin, M., Bennell, C., & Jenkins, B. (2021). An evaluation of a community-based joint mobile crisis intervention team in a small Canadian police service. Community Mental Health Journal, 57, 567-578. [PDF]


57. Blaskovits, B., & Bennell, C. (2020). Exploring the potential impact of body worn cameras on memory in officer-involved critical incidents: A literature review. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 35, 251-262. [PDF]

56. Blaskovits, B., Bennell., C., Huey, L., Kalyal, H., Walker, T., & Jalava, S. (2020). A Canadian replication of Telep and Lum’s (2014) examination of police officers’ receptivity to empirical research. Policing & Society, 30, 276-294. [PDF]

55. Kalyal, H., Huey, L., Blaskovits, B., & Bennell, C. (2020). “If it’s not worth doing half-assed, it’s not worth doing at all”: Police views as to why new strategy implementation fails. Police Practice and Research, 21, 117-133. [PDF]

54. Pica, E., Sheahan, C.L., Pozzulo, J., & Bennell, C. (2020). Guns, gloves, and tasers: Perceptions of police officers when their weapon choice and race are varied. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. [PDF]


53. Baldwin, S., Bennell, C., Andersen, J., Semple, T., & Jenkins, B. (2019). Stress-activity mapping: Physiological responses during general duty police encounters. Frontiers in Psychology. [PDF]

52. Blaskovits, B. & Bennell, C. (2019). Are we revealing hidden aspects of our personality when we walk? Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 43(3), 329-356. [PDF]

51. Ewanation, L., Bennell, C., Blaskovits, B., & Baldwin, S. (2019). Validating the Police Legitimacy Scale with a Canadian sample. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 61, 1-23. [PDF]

50. Woodhams, J., Tonkin, M., Burrell, A., Imre, H., Winter, J., Lam, E., ten Brinke, G., Webb, M., Labuschagne, G.N., Bennell, C., Ashmore-Hills, L., van der Kemp, J. J., Lipponen, S., Pakkanen, T., Rainbow, L., Salfati, G., & Santtila, P. (2019). Linking serial sexual offences: Moving towards an ecologically valid test of the principles of crime linkage. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 24, 123-140[PDF]


49. Baldwin, S., Hall, C., Blaskovits, B., Bennell, C., Lawrence, C., & Semple, T. (2018). Excited delirium syndrome (ExDS): Subject and officer risk factors in non-fatal use of force encounters. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 60, 26-34. [PDF]

48. Deslauriers-Varin, N., Bennell, C., & Bergeron, A. (2018). Crime linkage et profilage criminal. Cahiers de la sécurité et de la Justice – Spécial Canada, 43, 81-90. [PDF]

47. Duxbury, L., Bennell, C., Halinksi, M., & Murphy, S. (2018). Change or be changed: Diagnosing the readiness to change in the Canadian police sector. The Police Journal: Theory, Practice, and Principles, 9, 316-338[PDF]

46. Emeno, K., & Bennell, C. (2018). Near repeat space-time patterns of Canadian crime. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 60, 141-166. [PDF]


45. Ellingwood, H., Emeno, K., Bennell, C., Forth, A., Kosson, D., & Hare, R. D. (2017). Multidimensional scaling analysis of psychopathy in male juveniles using the PCL: YV. Journal of Criminal Psychology, 7, 262-279[PDF]

44. Huey, L. & Bennell, C. (2017). Replication and reproduction of Canadian policing research: A note. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 59, 123-138. [PDF]

43. Huey, L., Blaskovits, B., Bennell, C., Kalyal, H., & Walker, T. J. (2017). To what extent do Canadian police professionals think that their agencies are ‘targeting, testing and tracking’ new police strategies and programs? Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 18, 544-555[PDF]

42. Tonkin, M., Pakkanen, T., Sirén, J., Bennell, C., Woodhams, J., Burrell, A., Imre, H., Winter, J. M., Lam, E., ten Brinke, G., Webb, M., Labuschagne, G.N., Ashmore-Hills, L., van der Kemp, J. J., Lipponen, S., Rainbow, L., Salfati, C.G., & Santtila, P. (2017). Using offender crime scene behaviour to link sexual assaults: A comparison of three statistical approaches. Journal of Criminal Justice, 50, 19-28. [PDF]


41. Baldwin, S., Hall, C., Bennell, C., Blaskovits, B., & Lawrence, C. (2016). Distinguishing features of excited delirium syndrome in non-fatal use of force encounters. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 41, 21-27. [PDF]

40. Emeno, K., Bennell, C., Snook, B., & Taylor, P.J. (2016). Geographic profiling survey: A preliminary examination of geographic profilers’ views and experiences. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 18, 3-12. [PDF]


39. Bennell, C., Mugford, R., Ellingwood, H., & Woodhams, J. (2014). Linking crimes using behavioural clues: Current levels of linking accuracy and strategies for moving forward. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 11, 29-56. [PDF]

38. Richardson, B., Taylor, P.J., Snook, B., Conchie, S., & Bennell, C. (2014). Language style matching and confessions in police interrogations. Law and Human Behavior, 38, 357-366. [PDF]


37. Bennell, C., Bloomfield, S., Emeno, K., & Musolino, E. (2013). Classifying serial sexual murder/murderers: An attempt to validate Keppel and Walter’s (1999) model. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 40, 5-25. [PDF]

36. Ellingwood, H., Mugford, R., Melnyk, T., & Bennell, C. (2013). Examining the role of similarity coefficients and the value of behavioural themes in attempts to link serial arson offences. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 10, 1-27. [PDF]

35. Emeno, K., & Bennell, C. (2013). The effectiveness of calibrated versus default distance decay functions for geographic profiling: A preliminary examination of crime type. Psychology, Crime, and Law, 19, 215-232. [PDF]

34. Mugford, R., Corey, S., & Bennell, C. (2013). Improving police training from a cognitive load perspective. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 36, 312-337. [PDF]


33. Bennell, C., Snook, B., Macdonald, S., House, J., & Taylor, P.J. (2012). Computerized crime linkage analysis systems: A critical review and research agenda. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 616-630[PDF]

32. Snook, B., Luther, K., House, J., Bennell, C., & Taylor, P.J. (2012). The violent crime linkage analysis system: A test of inter-rater reliability. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 607-619[PDF]


31. Bennell, C., Jones, N.J., & Taylor, A. (2011). Determining the authenticity of suicide notes: Can training improve human judgment? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38, 669-689. [PDF]

30. Hogan, J., Bennell, C., & Taylor, A. (2011). The challenges of moving into middle management: Responses from police officers. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 26, 100-111. [PDF]


29. Bennell, C., Bloomfield, S., Snook, B., Taylor, P.J., & Barnes. C. (2010). Linkage analysis in cases of serial burglary: Comparing the performance of university students, forensic professionals, and a logistic regression model. Psychology, Crime, and Law, 16, 507-524. [PDF]

28. Bennell, C., Emeno, K., Snook, B., Taylor, P.J., & Goodwill, A.M. (2010). The precision, accuracy, and efficiency of geographic profiling predictions: A simple heuristic versus mathematical algorithms. Crime Mapping: A Journal of Research and Practice, 1, 65-84. [PDF]

27. Bennell, C., Gauthier, D., Gauthier, D., Melnyk, T., & Musolino, E. (2010). The impact of data degradation and sample size on the performance of two similarity coefficients used in behavioural linkage analysis. Forensic Science International, 199, 85-92. [PDF]

26. Melnyk, T., Bennell, C., Gauthier, D., & Gauthier, D. (2010). Another look at across-crime similarity coefficients for use in behavioural linkage analysis: An attempt to replicate Woodhams, Grant, and Price (2007). Psychology, Crime, and Law, 16, 507-524. [PDF]

25. Snook, B., Eastwood, J., Gendreau, P., & Bennell, C. (2010). The importance of knowledge cumulation and a search for hidden agendas: A reply to Kocsis, Middledorp, and Karpin (2008). Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 10, 214-233. [PDF]


24. Bennell, C., Jones, N.J., & Melnyk, T. (2009). Addressing problems with traditional crime linking methods using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 14, 293-310. [PDF]

23. Snook, B., Taylor, P. J., Gendreau, P., & Bennell, C. (2009). On the need for scientific experimentation in the criminal profiling field: A reply to Dern et al. (2009). Criminal Justice and Behavior, 10, 1091-1094 [PDF].

22. Taylor, P.J., Bennell, C., & Snook, B. (2009). The bounds of cognitive heuristic performance on the geographic profiling task. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 410-430. [PDF]


21. Bennell, C., Corey, S., Taylor, A., & Ecker, J. (2008). What skills are required for effective offender profiling? An examination of the relationship between critical thinking ability and profile accuracy. Psychology, Crime, and Law, 14, 143-157. [PDF]

20. Bennell, C., Mugford, R., Taylor, A., Bloomfield, S., & Wilson, C. (2008). The false recognition effect in offender profiling. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 23, 71-80. [PDF]

19. Snook, B., Cullen, R., Bennell, C., Taylor, P.J., & Gendreau, P. (2008). The criminal profiling illusion: What’s behind the smoke and mirrors? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35, 1257-1276. [PDF]


18. Bennell, C., Jones, N.J., & Corey, S. (2007). Does use-of-force simulation training in Canadian police agencies incorporate principles of effective training? Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 13, 35-58. [PDF]

17. Bennell, C., Snook, B., Taylor, P.J., Corey, S., & Keyton, J. (2007). It’s no riddle, choose the middle: The effect of number of crimes and topographical detail on police officer predictions of serial burglars’ home locations. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 119-132. [PDF]

16. Bennell, C., Taylor, P.J., & Snook, B. (2007). Clinical versus actuarial geographic profiling strategies: A review of the research. Police Practice and Research, 8, 335-345. [PDF]

15. Dowden, C., Bennell, C., & Bloomfield, S. (2007). Advances in offender profiling: A systematic review of the profiling literature published over the past three decades. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 22, 44-56. [PDF]

14. Jones, N.J., & Bennell, C. (2007). The development and validation of statistical prediction rules for discriminating between genuine and simulated suicide notes. Archives of Suicide Research, 11, 1-15. [PDF]

13. Snook, B., Cullen, R., Taylor, P.J., & Bennell, C. (2007). Criminal profiling use and belief: A survey of Canadian police officer opinion. Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, 5, 169-179. [PDF]


12. Bennell, C., Jones, N.J., Taylor, P.J., & Snook, B. (2006). Validities and abilities in criminal profiling: A critique of the studies conducted by Richard Kocsis and his colleagues. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50, 344-360. [PDF]

11. Taylor, A., & Bennell, C. (2006). Operational and organizational police stress in an Ontario police department: A descriptive study. Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, 4, 223-234. [PDF]


10. Bennell, C. (2005). Improving police decision-making: General principles and practical applications of receiver operating characteristic analysis. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 1157-1175. [PDF]

9. Bennell, C., & Jones, N.J. (2005). Between a ROC and a hard place: A method for linking serial burglaries using an offender’s modus operandi. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 2, 23-41. [PDF]

8. Snook, B., Taylor, P.J., & Bennell, C. (2005). Shortcuts to geographic profiling success: A reply to Rossmo (2005). Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 655-661. [PDF]

7. Snook, B., Zito, M., Bennell, C., & Taylor, P.J. (2005). On the complexity and accuracy of geographic profiling strategies. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 21, 1-26. [PDF]


6. Snook, B., Taylor, P.J., & Bennell, C. (2004). Geographic profiling: The fast, frugal and accurate way. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18, 105-121. [PDF]


5. Canter, D.V., Bennell, C., Alison, L.J., & Reddy, S. (2003). Differentiating sex offences: A behaviourally based thematic classification of stranger rapes. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 21, 157-174. [PDF]


4. Alison, L.J., Bennell, C., Mokros, A., & Omerod, D. (2002). The personality paradox in offender profiling: A theoretical review of the processes involved in deriving background characteristics from crime scene behaviours. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 8, 115-135. [PDF]

3. Bennell, C., & Canter, D.V. (2002). Linking commercial burglaries by modus operandi: Tests using regression and ROC analysis. Science and Justice, 42, 153-164. [PDF]

2. Snook, B., Canter, D.V., & Bennell, C. (2002). Predicting the home location of serial offenders: Comparing the accuracy of human judges to a geographic profiling system. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 20, 109-118. [PDF]


1. Bennell, C., Alison, L.J., Stein, K.L., Alison, E.L., & Canter, D.V. (2001). Sexual offences against children as the abusive exploitation of conventional adult-child relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 18, 149-165. [PDF]