Photo of Madalena Santos

Madalena Santos

Instructor II

Degrees:Ph.D. (Sociology), Carleton University
Phone:613-520-2600 x 1194
Office:DT 1713 Dunton Tower

Areas of Interest

  • Settler colonial studies
  • Anticolonial resistance and resurgence
  • Mobility and migration
  • Punishment and penal abolition
  • Women and Transnational feminisms, Critical race theory, and Intersectionality


Madalena Santos is an instructor at Carleton’s Institute for Criminology and Criminal Justice (ICCJ). She has a PhD in Sociology from Carleton University. She has a broad interest penal abolition, social justice and settler colonial studies.

Madalena’s most recent work with Dr. Augustine S.J. Park offers a victim‐centric analysis of reparations relating to apartheid in South Africa. We identify a multi‐dimensional ‘reparations gap’, which refers to the disconnect between victims and the state in relation to reparations, including the meanings attributed to reparations, and the perception, evaluation, and experience of reparations. The reparations gap has had profoundly ‘counter‐reparative’ impacts on the relationship between victims and the government. Appreciating victims as reparations ‘experts’ with unique knowledge rooted in lived experience, this article explores their narratives of the ongoing need for reparations, specifically relating to a nexus of historically induced structural and systemic injustice. The article calls for the comprehensive and continuous participation of victims and their organizations to close the reparations gap.


CRCJ 4001: Special Topics – The Criminalization of Black, Indigenous, and Women of Colour

CRCJ 4001: Special Topics – Crime, Mobility, and Migration (previously, the Criminalization of Im/migration)

CRCJ 3201: Special Topics – Contemporary Representations of Punishment

CRCJ 3002: Qualitative Research Methods

CRCJ 2100: Criminological Theories

CRCJ 1000: Introduction to Criminology and Criminal Justice

Current Academic Appointments

Instructor II, Institute of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Carleton University.


Park, Augustine S. J., and Madalena Santos (2022). “The Counter‐reparative Impacts of South Africa’s Reparations Gap: Victims as Reparations ‘experts’ and the Role of Victims’ Organizations.” Journal of Law and Society, 49(4): 635–657.

Monaghan, Jeffrey and Madalena Santos (2020). “Canada, the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO) and the Flexibility of Terror Identities.” Critical Studies on Terrorism, 13(2): 280-295.

Santos, Madalena (2018). “Palestinian Narratives of Resistance: The Freedom Theatre’s Challenge to Israeli Settler Colonization.” Settler Colonial Studies, 8(1): 96-113.

Santos, Madalena (2018). “Settler Colonial Surveillance and the Criminalization of Social Media: Contradictory Implications for Palestinian resistance” in Lucas Melgaço and Jeffrey Monaghan (eds.) Protests in the Information Age: Social Movements, Digital Practices and Surveillance, Routledge: New York, Chapter  5, pp. 97-114.

Santos, Madalena (2013). “Relations of Ruling in the Colonial Present: An Intersectional View of the Israeli Imaginary.” Canadian Journal of Sociology/ Cahiers canadiens de sociologie, 38(4): 509-532.

Santos, Madalena (2011). “Beyond Negotiating Impossibilities: The Art of Palestinian Creative Resistance.” Platforum, 12: 57-79.