The fall of Muammar Qaddafi‟s regime in 2011 has sparked an escalation of ethnic tensions in Libya‟s southern province of Fezzan, where indigenous Toubous1 have experienced recent violent clashes with local Arab tribes, particularly the Zwai. The towns of Sabha and Kufra remain under a tense ceasefire between the heavily-armed tribal militias, while upcoming national elections on July 7, 2012 threaten to trigger renewed fighting. Further escalation or diffusion of violence could destabilize Libya‟s fragile democratic transition and draw transnational actors into the conflict. To contain the outbreak of further violence and encourage the political inclusion of the Toubou into the new Libyan state, the Canadian Government should act in cooperation with UN allies to assist the Libyan transitional government restore a minimal capacity for security provision and policing within its territory, encourage dialogue to accommodate Toubou aspirations to equal citizenship and political participation, and promote exiting grassroots initiatives for inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation

Libya Toubou Conflict Report 2012