Afghanistan has had a turbulent history of conflict for over three decades. After the collapse of the constitutional monarchy led by King Zahir Shah in 1973 and the establishment of a republic by Muhammad Daud, the country fell into the throws of civil strife. A leftist coup that overthrew and killed Daud in 1978 sparked more civil unrest prompting Soviet intervention and the sending of troops. Resistance to the Soviet intervention was carried out by guerillas of Afghan “mujahedin” backed by the US, Pakistan, China, Iran and Saudi Arabia, who sent money and arms

Afghanistan: A Risk Assessment Brief