Portuguese explorers founded Angola’s capital, Luanda, in 1575, thus beginning 400 years of colonial rule. In the 1960s, various groups in Angola fought for independence, the most well known being the Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA), and the União Nacional para a Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA). In 1975 a transitional government was formed including both UNITA and the MPLA, but it collapsed and the civil war began, even though independence from Portugal was subsequently achieved on November 11th, 1975. Since 1975 the MPLA has been the de facto government in Angola, in a Marxist one-party system from 1975-1992, and after the 1992 election in a nominal democracy in which it exerts overwhelming power.

Angola: A Risk Assessment Brief