Papua New Guinea’s population of 5.6 million is one of the most heterogeneous in the world, with more than 700 indigenous languages spoken by several thousand communities divided by mountainous terrain and sea. Approximately 85% of the population relies on semi-subsistence agriculture. Since independence from Australia in 1975, the country has experienced economic stagnation. The economy is heavily dependant on natural resources; gold, copper, and oil together constitute 75% of PNG’s export income. The government relies on aid, which comprises 20% of PNG’s budget. as well as revenue from foreign multinationals. This leads to a lack of accountability to its citizens. Development indicators, including literacy rates, education enrolment, and access to health care, have declined over the past three decades. This reflects the general deterioration of living conditions, particularly in rural areas.

Papua New Guinea : A Risk Assessment Brief