Decades of sectarian politics, coupled with poor economic policies, have made it challenging for Lebanon to provide its population with basic services. The indicators are worrisome. The GDP growth rate is at -5.6% as of 2019 and the inflation rate is at 136%. Recent triggers such as the influx of Syrian refugees (1.5 million, the world’s highest per capita refugee population), COVID 19 (126,000 cases in November 2020) and the Beirut explosion (that destroyed 120,000 tons of food) have exacerbated the already dire economic situation, leaving Lebanon at the crossroads of reforms or deterioration into fragility. While Lebanon’s government authority is moderately stable and representative of its diversity, the poor service delivery has resulted in a legitimacy crises and limited capacity for change. This policy brief recommends immediate engagement in strategic economic reforms sanctioned by civil society, including women led organizations, improving service delivery by enhancing the capacity of national actors to deliver proper public services, and increasing the legitimacy of the government by reducing political gridlocks in Lebanon’s political system.Lebanon Fragility Brief 2021