Since gaining independence from Belgium in 1962, Burundi has been racked by successive waves of political violence. In the past fifty years, Burundi has suffered three civil conflicts, eight attempted coups d’etat, and two genocides.i The most devastating conflict began in 1993 and was fuelled by instability in neighbouring Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The 2005 Arusha Accords brought the conflict to an end and initiated a process of political reform and military demobilization. In May 2015, President Nurunziza announced he would run for a third term leading to mass protests. Following an attempted coup in June 2015, President Nkurunziza was re‐elected amidst allegations of intimidation. Violence escalated dramatically in December 2015 with rebel factions launching coordinated attacks across Burundi and the government carrying out reprisal attacks. The United Nations has estimated that more than 200,000 people have fled Burundi and hundreds of people have been killed since the June 2015 elections. “In January 2016, Amnesty International reported evidence of mass graves on the outskirts of Bujumbura.”

Burundi Conflict Risk Diagnostic 2016