Photo of Shawn Hayley

Shawn Hayley

Professor, Graduate Chair

Phone:613-520-2600 x 6314
Office:5301 Health Sciences Building

Areas of Specialization / Field Affiliations

  • Neuroinflammatory factors, Parkinson’s disease, neuronal plasticity, affective states..

Eligible to supervise at the undergraduate and graduate level.

Current Research in the Hayley Lab:

  • Development of an early stage animal model of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Mechanism Determination of the Cytokines Erythropoietin and Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor in Parkinson’s disease.
  • Cytokine Treatment in the late stages of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Interaction between the peripheral and central systems in Parkinson’s disease.
  • Use of novel NMDA receptor antagonist as a potential treatment of depression in mice.
  • Effects of Magnesium in conjunction with Ketamine as a potential treatment of depression.
  • Effects of immune modulating cytokines in depression
  • Interaction of early exposure to antibiotics and resultant food allergy: an immunological perspective

Professor Hayley’s Profile:

My research is focused upon how interactions between the brain and immune system may influence the development of psychiatric and neurological conditions. In particular, how stressors impact upon neuro-immune communication to promote emotional and behavioural disturbances. Current projects are also exploring how environmental factors and immune insults may cause brain inflammation that contributes to neurodegeneration.

Neuroimmune interactions

This facet of my research focuses upon mechanisms through which the brain and immune system communicate with each other. In this respect, protein messengers, called cytokines, released from immune cells may inform the brain of infectious/inflammatory events. Likewise, stressors or other centrally acting factors may shape the immune response by altering cytokine activity. Such bi-directional communication may help explain how various illness (e.g. infections, heart disease, stroke) are influenced by stressors and other life experiences.

Molecular mechanisms of stress

Many types of stressors exist that range from primarily psychological in nature (psychogenic) to those that impact directly upon physical aspects of individuals (neurogenic). Since cytokines have neurochemical and behavioural effects reminiscent of traditional stressors, these have been proposed to act as systemic stressors. Current work examines the underlying molecular pathways (e.g. MAP kinases, NFkB) that be activated by stressors and immune system factors (particularly cytokines). Psychogenic stressors may cause emotional and behavioural disturbances by stimulating cytokine activity in conjunction with these molecular pathways.

Stressor-cytokine sensitization 

Current focus upon the neuronal mechanisms responsible for the long-term effects of stressor and cytokine exposure. Brain pathways may become hyper-sensitive to environmental insults after experiencing certain combinations of stress and excessive immune activation. This sensitization phenomenon may help explain how behavioural and neuronal pathology are related to the accumulating effects of environmental insults throughout life.

Inflammatory aspects of neurodegenerative diseases

Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases all have a strong neuroinflammatory component. My present research seeks to determine the role of cytokines and other inflammatory factors (e.g. prostaglandins, nitric oxide) in these conditions. Particular attention is devoted to the possibility that brain inflammation related to environmental factors (e.g. pesticides, viral infections), might shape the onset and development of Parkinson’s disease in certain predisposed individuals.

List of Recent Publications

  1. Anisman H, Hayley S. (2012). Inflammatory factors contribute to depression and its co-morbid conditions. Sci Signal. 5(244):pe45.
  2. Clarke M, Pentz R, Bobyn J, Hayley S. (2012). Stressor-Like Effects of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) Inhibition. PLoS One. 7(8):e44073.
  3. Litteljohn D, Hayley S. (2012). Cytokines as potential biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease: a multiplex approach. Methods Mol Biol. 934:121-44.
  4. Hayley S, Scharf J, Anisman H. (2012). Central administration of murine interferon-α induces depressive-like behavioral, brain cytokine and neurochemical alterations in mice: A mini-review and original experiments. Brain Behav Immun. Aug 4. [Epub ahead of print]
  5. Anisman H, Hayley S. (2012). Illness comorbidity as a biomarker? J Psychiatry Neurosci. 37(4):221-3.
  6. Bobyn J, Mangano EN, Gandhi A, Nelson E, Moloney K, Clarke M, Hayley S. (2012). Viral-toxin interactions and Parkinson’s disease: poly(I:C) priming enhanced the neurodegenerative effects of paraquat.J Neuroinflammation. 2012 May 4;9(1):86. [Epub ahead of print]
  7. Sliz D, Smith A, Wiebking C, Northoff G, Hayley S. (2012). Neural correlates of a single-session massage treatment. Brain Imaging Behav. 2012 Mar;6(1):77-87.
  8. Hayley S. (2011). Toward an anti-inflammatory strategy for depression. Front Behav Neurosci. 2011 Apr 13;5:19.
  9. Gibb J, Hayley S, Poulter MO, Anisman H. (2011). Effects of stressors and immune activating agents on peripheral and central cytokines in mouse strains that differ in stressor responsivity.  Brain Behav Immun Mar;25(3):468-82.
  10. Mangano EN, Peters S, Litteljohn D, So R, Bethune C, Bobyn J, Clarke M, Hayley S. (2011). Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor protects against substantia nigra dopaminergic cell loss in an environmental toxin model of Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2011 Jul;43(1):99-112.
  11. Mangano EN, Litteljohn D, So R, Nelson E, Peters S, Bethune C, Bobyn J, Hayley S. (2011). Interferon-γ plays a role in paraquat-induced neurodegeneration involving oxidative and proinflammatory pathways. Neurobiol Aging. Apr 9. [Epub ahead of print].
  12. Hayley S, Mangano E, Crowe G, Li N, Bowers WJ. (2011). An in vivo animal study assessing long-term changes in hypothalamic cytokines following perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture based on Arctic maternal body burden. Environ Health. Jul 11;10:65.
  13. Litteljohn D, Nelson E, Bethune C, Hayley S. (2011). The effects of paraquat on regional brain neurotransmitter activity, hippocampal BDNF and behavioural function in female mice. Neurosci Lett. Sep 20;502(3):186-91.
  14. Litteljohn D, Mangano E, Clarke M, Bobyn J, Moloney K, Hayley S. (2010). Inflammatory mechanisms of neurodegeneration in toxin-based models of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsons Dis. Dec 30, 2011:713517.
  15. Hayley S (2010). A comment on the role of environmental factors in Parkinson’s disease. Can J Neurol Sci. 2010 Sep;37(5):555-6
  16. Anisman H, Hayley S (2010). Cytokine effects on neuronal processes and on behavior. Enc Beh Neurosi, 1, 361-369.
  17. Litteljohn D, Cummings A, Brennan A, Gill A, Chunduri S, Anisman H, Hayley S. (2010).  Interferon-gamma deficiency modifies the effects of a chronic stressor in mice: Implications for psychological pathology. Brain Behav Immun, 24(3):462-473.
  18. Litteljohn D, Mangano E, Shukla N, Hayley S. (2009). Interferon-gamma deficiency modifies the motor and co-morbid behavioral pathology and neurochemical changes provoked by the pesticide paraquat. Neuroscience, 164(4):1894-906.
  19. Gibb J, Audet MC, Hayley S, Anisman H. (2009). Neurochemical and behavioral responses to inflammatory immune stressors. Front Biosci;1:275-295.
  20. Litteljohn D, Mangano EN & Hayley S (2008). Cyclooxygenase-2 deficiency modifies the neurochemical effects, motor impairment and co-morbid anxiety provoked by paraquat administration in mice. Eur. J. Neurosci., Jul 24. [Epub ahead of print].
  21. Merali Z, Hayley S, Kent P, McIntosh J, Bédard T, Anisman H. (2009). Impact of repeated stressor exposure on the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine-vasopressin and bombesin-like peptides at the anterior pituitary. Behav Brain Res. 198(1):105-12.
  22. Seguin JA, Mangano EN, Brennan J & Hayley S (2009). Proinflammatory cytokines differentially influence adult hippocampal cell proliferation depending upon the route and chronicity of administration. Neuropsyc. Dis. Treatment, 5, 5-14.
  23. Kentner AC, Takeuchi A, James JS, Miki T, Seino S, Hayley S, Bielajew C. (2008). The effects of rewarding ventral tegmental area stimulation and environmental enrichment on lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior and cytokine expression in female rats. Brain Res. 1217:50-61.
  24. Anisman H, Merali Z & Hayley S (2008). Neurotransmitter, peptide and cytokine processes in relation to depressive disorder: Comorbidity between depression and neurodegenerative disorders. Progress in Neurobiol, Feb. 13 [Epub ahead of print].
  25. Mangano E.N. & Hayley S. (2008). Inflammatory priming of the substantia nigra influences the impact of later paraquat exposure: Neuroimmune sensitization of neurodegeneration.  Neurobiology of Aging, Jan 8; [Epub ahead of print].
  26. Anisman H, Gibb J, Hayley S. (2008). Influence of continuous infusion of interleukin-1beta on depression-related processes in mice: corticosterone, circulating cytokines, brain monoamines, and cytokine mRNA expression. Psychopharmacology 199(2):231-44.
  27. Hayley S, Mangano EN, Strickland M & Anisman H (2008). Lipopolysaccharide and a social stressor influence behaviour, corticosterone and cytokine levels: Divergent actions in cyclooxygenase-2 deficient mice and wild type controls.  J. Neuroimmunol., 197(1):29-36.
  28. Gibb J, Hayley S, Gandhi R, Poulter MO, Anisman H. (2008). Synergistic and additive actions of a psychosocial stressor and endotoxin challenge: Circulating and brain cytokines, plasma corticosterone and behavioral changes in mice. Brain Beh Immun, Jan 9 [Epub ahead of print].
  29. Mount M, Lira A, Alyeason H, Grimes D, SmithP, SlackR, Anisman H, Hayley S*, Park DS* (2007).  Central nature of interferon-gamma in microglial mediated loss of dopaminergic neurons. J. Neurosci, 27, 3328-3337. *Co-senior authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
  30. Anisman H, Poulter MO, Gandhi R, Merali Z, Hayley S (2007). Interferon-a effects are exaggerated when administered on a psychosocial stressor backdrop: Cytokine, corticosterone and brain monoamine variations. J. Neuroimmunol., Apr 9, Epub.
  31. Gandhi R, Hayley S, Gibb J, Merali Z, Anisman H.  (2007). Influence of poly I:C on sickness behaviors, plasma cytokines, corticosterone and central monoamine activity: Moderation by social stressors.  Brain Behav Immun. 2007 Jan 29; [Epub ahead of print].
  32. Crocker S.J*. Hayley S*., Smith P.D., Callaghan S.M., Slack R.S., &  Park D.S. (2006). Stress-Activated MAP Kinase Signaling in Nigral Dopamine Neurons Modifies Axotomy-Induced c-Jun Expression and Neurodegeneration in vivo.  J. Neurochem., 96, 489-499. *authors contributed equally.
  33. Hayley S, Poulter MO, Merali Z & Anisman H (2005). The pathogenesis of clinical depression: stressor- and cytokine-induced alterations of neuroplasticity. Neuroscience. 135, 659-678.
  34. Kim RH, Smith PD, Aleyasin H, Hayley S, Mount MP, Pownall S, Wakeham A, You-Ten AJ,Kalia SK, Horne P, Westaway D, Lozano AM, Anisman H, Park DS, Mak TW.(2005). Hypersensitivity of DJ-1-deficient mice to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrindine (MPTP) and oxidative stress. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102(14):5215-20.
  35. Hayley S, Anisman H. (2005). Multiple mechanisms of cytokine action in neurodegenerative and psychiatric states: neurochemical and molecular substrates.Curr Pharm Des. 11(8):947-62.
  36. Anisman H, Merali Z, Poulter MO, Hayley S (2005). Cytokines as a precipitant of depressive illness: animal and human studies. Curr Pharm Des. 11(8):963-72.
  37. Sudom K, Turrin NP, Hayley S, Anisman H. (2004). Influence of chronic interleukin-2 infusion and stressors on sickness behaviors and neurochemical change in mice. Neuroimmunomodulation. 11(5):341-50.
  38. Hayley S, Kelly OP & Anisman (2004).  Corticosterone changes in response to stressors, acute and protracted actions of tumor necrosis factor-a, and lipopolysaccharide treatments in mice lacking the tumor necrosis factor-a p55 receptor gene. Neuroimmunomodulation. 11(4):241-6.
  39. Hayley S, Crocker SJ, Smith P, Shree T & Park DS (2004).  Regulation of dopaminergic loss by Fas in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinson’s disease. J. Neurosci., 24, 2045-2053.
  40. Michaud DS McLean J, Keith SE Ferrarotto C, Hayley S, Anisman H & Merali Z (2003). Strain differences in neurochemical and neuroendocrine responses to an acute audiogenic stressor in male Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. Neuropsychopharmacol., 28, 1068-1081.
  41. Hayley S, Merali Z & Anisman H (2003). Stress and cytokine-elicited neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter sensitization: implications for depressive illness. Stress, 6, 19-32.
  42. Anisman H, Turrin N, Merali Z & Hayley S (2003). Neurochemical Sensitization Associated with Systemic administration of Tumor Necrosis Factor-a: Adjuvant Action in Combination with Bovine Serum Albumin. J. Neuroimmunol., 145, 91-102.
  43. Smith, P, Crocker SJ, Jackson-Lewis V, Prezborski S, Hayley S, Slack R, & Park DS (2003). Neuroprotective effects of CDK5 in the MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 100, 13650-13655.
  44. Crocker SJ, Smith P, Jackson-Lewis V, Hayley S, Prezborski S, Lambda W, Slack R & Park DS (2003). Role of calpain in MPTP-induced dopamine neuron loss and behavioural impairment in mice. J. Neurosci., 23, 4081-4091.
  45. Anisman H, Merali Z & Hayley S (2003). Sensitization associated with stressors and cytokine treatments. Brain Behav. Immun., 17, 86-93.
  46. Hayley S, Merali Z & Anisman (2003). Stress and cytokine-elicited neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter sensitization: implications for depressive illness. Stress, 6, 19-32.
  47. Hayley S, Merali Z & AnismanH (2002). The acute and sensitization effects of tumor necrosis factor-a: implications for immunotherapy as well as psychiatric and neurological conditions. Acta Neuropsychiat., 14, 322-335.
  48. Anisman H, Hayley S, Turrin N & Merali Z (2002). Stress, cytokines and depression. Inter. J. Neuropsychiat. 5, 357-373.
  49. Hayley S, Kelly O & Anisman H (2002). Murine tumor necrosis factor- a sensitizes plasma cortcisoterone and manifestation of shock: Modulation by histamine. J. Neuroimmunol., 131, 60-69.
  50. Hayley S, Wall P & Anisman H (2002).  Sensitization to the Neuroendocrine, Central Monoamine and Behavioral Effects of murine Tumor Necrosis Factor-a: Peripheral and central mechanisms. Eur. J. Neurosci., 15, 1061-1076.
  51. Anisman H, Kelly O, Hayley S, Borowski TB, Merali Z & McIntyre DC (2001). Acoustic startle and fear potentiated startle in rats selectively bred for fast and slow kindling rates: Relation to monoamine activity. Eur. J.  Neurosci., 12, 4405-4416.
  52. Hayley S, Merali Z & Anisman H (2001). Central monoamine activity in genetically distinct strains of mice following a psychogenic stressor: effects of predator exposure. Brain Res., 892, 293-300.
  53. Anisman H, Hayley S, Kelley O, Borowski TB & Merali Z (2001). Psychogenic, neurogenic and systemic stressor effects on plasma corticosterone and behavior: mouse strain-dependent outcomes. Beh. Neurosci., 115, 443-454.
  54. Hayley S, Lacosta S, Merali Z, van Rooijen N & Anisman H (2001). Central Monoamine and Plasma Corticosterone Changes Induced by a Bacterial Endotoxin: Sensitization and Cross-sensitization Effects. Eur. J. Neurosci., 13, 1155-1165.
  55. Hayley S, Staines W, Merali Z & Anisman (2001). Time-dependent sensitization of corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and c-fos immunoreactivity within the mouse brain in response to tumor necrosis factor-a. Neuroscience, 106, 137-148.
  56. Brebner K, Hayley S, Zacharko RM, Merali Z & Anisman H. (2000). Synergistic effects of Interleukin-1b, interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-a:Central monoamine, corticosterone and behavioral variations. Neuropsychopharmacol., 22, 566-580.
  57. Hayley S, Brebner K, Lacosta S., Merali Z & Anisman H. (1999). Sensitization effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-a: neuroendocrine, central monoamine and behavioral variations. J. Neurosci., 19 (13), 5654-5665.
  58. Lu Z W, Hayley S, Ravindran A V, Merali Z & Anisman H. (1999). Influence of psychosocial, psychogenic and neurogenic stressors on several aspects of immune functioning in mice. Stress, 3 (1), 55-70.
  59. McIntyre D C, Kent P, Hayley S, Merali Z & Anisman H. (1999). Influence of psychogenic and neurogenic stressors on neuroendocrine and central monoamine activity in fast and slow kindling rats. Brain Res., 840, 65-74.