This chapter begins by discussing these variations of HRFOs in greater detail. A distinction is made between a human rights “field presence” and “field operation.” The second section examines how HRFOs respond to HRVs through monitoring and institution-building – and evaluates the effectiveness of each type of response in deescalating conflict. The third and final section explores the question of when HRFOs should be deployed in response to systemic, proximate or immediate determinants.

Human Rights and Field Operations – Chapter 3 & Conclusion