Research: Dr. Winn’s research is based on the evidence suggesting that fetal toxicity may be mediated, at least in part, by the embryonic bioactivation of xenobiotics (i.e. pharmaceutical drugs and environmental chemicals) to free radical intermediates, which can lead to increased oxidative stress and ultimately teratogenesis. Her focus is on several xenobiotics including benzene, TCDD, valproic acid and thalidomide as models of xenobiotic-initiated teratogenesis. Using both in vivo animal and cell culture models, she is evaluating the effects of these xenobiotics on embryonic signalling pathways involving several proteins including c-Myb, Pim-1, Ras and p53. Additionally, she is investigating mechanisms of xenobiotic-initiated homologous recombination and the role of oxidative stress in this process.