Executive Summary
This policy brief finds that Mali is suffering from a capacity trap: a failure to provide basic services (equally across the territory and across groups) has weakened the social contract and undermined the legitimacy of the state. Mali also suffers from an authority problem, linked to the state’s lack of capacity to extend its authority across its territory.We identify that governance, security and crime, and economic issues are the main drivers of this fragility in Mali. As such, we recommend that the Canadian government: partner with CANADEM to monitor the April 2019 elections; deepen partnerships with local non-governmental organizations; expand the role of the Canadian Armed Forces in Operation PRESENCE to include training the Malian Armed Forces and local police under the European Training Mission in Mali (EUTM) and the Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA); and lastly, support the G5 Sahel Joint Force through financial aid.

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