Instructor: Professor Jennifer Evans

Is it sufficient to view the pre-1900 history of Germany solely through the lens of genocide and total war? Our course will show that there often co-existed many different Germanys. One was a country of verdant landscapes and alpine vistas, while another chafed under overcrowding and unchecked industrial growth. One saw notions of race, culture and civilization justifying the exclusion of hosts of citizens and subjects, while another witnessed radicals and liberals alike seeking an expansion of rights, privileges and representation. In 19th century Germany Jews might simultaneously be outsiders and patriots, while women from diverse social and economic backgrounds organized as dynastic supporters, labour activists, and bourgeois feminists all seeking more meaningful personal and public lives. In one Germany, science was put to use to make arguments racial fitness while another Germany saw scientific arguments advanced in support of the decriminalization of homosexuality as a human right.


The course consists of two contact hours of lecture and a one hour discussion group per week. Evaluation includes discussion group participation, blogging, a formal writing assignment, and a take-home final exam. There is the possibility of guest lectures and course visitors with options for bonus marks.


I like to use an eclectic mix of primary and secondary source readings, from memoires to government documents. Some of the readings will be available via ARES online. Others will be available for purchase at Octopus Books later in the summer.

 Please feel free to contact me for more details: